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The Subjunctive Mood(虚拟语气)

[作者:张 冰   来源:本站原创    时间:2009-12-21 11:00:08   阅读:2005次] [字体: ]

 

The Subjunctive Mood
虚拟语气
张 冰


The Subjunctive Mood是关于动词的一种表达形式,表达的是与事实相反的一种假设或与事实相反的一种愿望。这里试谈虚拟语气在不同种类句子中的用法。如有不对,恳请指出。
条件句(if引导的虚拟条件状语从句
例如:If you heat snow,it will turn into water.
这是一个真实条件句,是事实,不是假设,无须用虚拟语气。请看下面的例句:
If I were a wild goose , I would fly to the south .( In fact ,I am not a wild goose ,I will not fly to the south.)这是与事实相反的假设而已。
注:在if引导的虚拟条件状语从句中表示与现在事实相反的假设或愿望谓语动词用一般过去式表示,该从句所修饰的主句的谓语动词则用would+动词原型。Be动词在if引导的虚拟条件状语从句中,无论其主语是第一人第二人称,还是第三人称,一般都用 were,不用 was
For example,
1.If there were no air ,people would die.( In fact ,there is air around us,so people are living.)
2.If you had been here just now ,nothing would have happened. (In fact, you were not here just now ,so something unexpected happened.)
注:在if引导的虚拟条件状语从句中表示与过去事实相反的假设或愿望谓语动词用过去完成时,该从句所修饰的主句谓语动词则用would +have done
例如;If I had been to London ,I would have told you more about this great city.( I am sorry that I have never been to London ,so I could not tell you anything more about it.)
注:在if引导的虚拟条件状语从句中表示与现在完成时所表示的动作相反的假设或愿望用过去完成式, 该从句所修饰的主句谓语动词用would +have done .不过这不是绝对的,如果主,从句分别有各自不同的时间状语时,则根据各自的时间状语来决定其谓语动词的适当形式.
For example,
1.If you had watered the flowers ,it would be growing still better now.
这种情况又称错综或混合时间条件句。又比如:
2.If you had prepared well for your lessons last week, you wouldn’t have so many difficulties now.
( In fact, you didn’t prepare well for your lessons last week, so you have so many difficulties now.)
3.If it were Sunday tomorrow, we wouldn’t have an examination.
4.If you were to visit the school next week, you would meet him.
5.If you should meet him there, you would say hello to him.(should 在这里表示“万一”的意思)
上面例句均表示与将来事实相反的假设或愿望.
含蓄条件句
1.We might have died without your help.( If you had not helped us ,we might have died.)
2.I was busy that day, otherwise I would have come to see you. ( If I had not been busy that day, I would have come to see you.)
3.I would have given you more money but I was so poor then.( if I had not been so poor then ,I would have given you more money.)
 if引导的虚拟条件状语从句中如果有were ,should 和助动词“ had,可以将were ,should,or had提前,省去“if”使句子倒装.
For example
1.Should I meet her ,I would tell her about it.( =If I should meet her, I would tell her about it .
 2.Were I you, I would do it at once. (=If I were you ,I would do it at once)
 3.Had I had enough money with me that day, I would have bought it .(= If I had enough money with me that day,I would have bought it )
二、宾语从句.( object clause )
Suggest ,insist, order demand, request, command ,wish…等用做谓语,其宾语从句一般用虚拟语气 should+do (动词原形)
For example,
1.He suggested that she should leave the house at once.
(该结构中的“suggest表示“建议”)
2.She insisted that they should show her their passports.
3.The judge ordered that the prisoner should be remanded.
 (该结构中“insist”表示“坚持要求)
这类动词可以这么记
一个坚持:insist
两个命令:order command
三个建议:suggset advise propose
四个要求:ask demand request require
 注:如果insist表示的是坚持一种观点或者看法,suggest 表示的不是建议而是show这个意思的时候,它们都不用虚拟语气。
For example
1.The old lady insisted that she did see a ghost in that room.
2.The smile on his face suggested that he was very happy, (“ suggest “here means “show”)
Wish的宾语从句也要用虚拟语气,但是与以上所列举的suggest .insist order …那一类动词不同的是wish的宾语从句不一定用should+do而是:
I wish that I were a wildgoose.( in fact I am not a wildgoose,I am a man /a woman.)
与事实相反的愿望。
I wish that I had finished the composition yesterday.(In fact I didn’t finish the composition yesterday .)
与过去事实相反的愿望。
I wish that I could fly as a wildgoose tomorrow morning
I wish that you would come to join me in flying tomorrow
I wish that you were to come to join me tomorrow morning
与将来事实相反的愿望
三、主语从句(subject clause
1.It is suggested that everybody should bring an apple here this afternoon.
2.It has been decided that the sports meet should be put off till next week.
这是句型:It is or was +past participle +主语从句
可用于这个结构的动词还是
一个坚持:insist
两个命令:order command
三个建议:suggset advise propose
四个要求:ask demand request requiredecide ,desire
接着请看下面的句型:It is or was +adj +主语从句
It is strange that she should wish to be a wildgoose
常见的形容词有:important, surprising ,necessary ,strange funny
还有:It is or was +n. +主语从句
It is a pity that you should miss such a good chance
可用于这个结构得分名词有;a pity , a shame no wonder
四、表语从句
suggestion ,proposal order idea insistence plan…等词用作主语,其表语从句用should+do(动词原形)
For example
My suggestion is that we should do the experiment again today.
如果 suggestion ,proposal order 等名词后面接同位语从句时,同位语从句用虚拟语气should+do(动词原形)
For example,
I don’t think much of his suggestion that everybody should bring an apple this afternoon.
五.还有两个特别句型:
It is( about/high) time (that) we went to school
I would rather he came tomorrow.
 用动词的过去式表示还不曾发生的动作。
六.状语从句
I am sorry that,
They were surprised that ,
We are disappointed that
as if…,
so that…,
in order that,等后面所接的状语从句的谓语动词一般来说都得用虚拟语气。
For example,
1.I am sorry that you should be in such poor health.
2.I am surprised that such a lovely girl as that should often be punished by the teacher.
3.We got up early so that we might catch the first train.( so that 后面接的目的状语从句必须用虚拟语气,但其后面所接的不是目的状语从句而是结果状语从句时,不必用虚拟语气。
For example,
1.We got up early so that we caught the first train.(该从句是一个结果状语从句,所以不用虚拟语气)
2.They talked about New York as if they had been there before.( in fact they have never been there )
3.He speaks English very well as if he were growing up in London..In fact he is not a Londoner.
注:There are clouds in the sky, it looks as if it is going to rain.( the clouds in the sky mean that it is likely to rain. 真实情况则不必用虚拟语气
 

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