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浅析过去分词

[作者:张 丹   来源:本站原创    时间:2009-12-21 11:02:04   阅读:2617次] [字体: ]

 

浅析过去分词
张 丹


有关动词过去分词的用法是英语学习中不可忽视的重要一环,过去分词在非谓语动词中具有相应的语态时态特征,但是我们只能称之为相应的被动式,完成式。若要对过去分词的两个显著的特点做概括,即:从时间上讲,表示动作已经完成;从语态上讲,表示被动的概念,但是如果是不及物动词用作过去分词形式,则只表示时间上的过去,而没有被动意义。
一、表语:
1.The cup is broken.
2.The door remains locked.
3.She looked disappointed.
二、定语:
1.Polluted air and water are harmful to people’s health.
2.A broken cup is lying on the ground.
3.This is one of the houses built last year. =which was built last year.
4.The largest collection ever found in England was one of about 200,000 silver pennies. = that had ever been found in England.
三、宾语补足语:可以带过去分词作宾语补足语的动词有:
1) see, hear, find ,feel, think等表示感觉和心理状态的动词
He found his hometown greatly changed when he came back from abroad.
He once heard the song sung in German.
Every thought the match lost.
2) make, get, have, keep 等表示“致使”意义的动词:
He’s going to have his hair cut.
She had her foot injured in the fall.
When you talk, you have to at least make yourself understood.
Please keep us informed of the latest developments.
 ( 请让我们了解最新的发展情况。)
四、状语:
The trainer appeared, followed by six little dogs.
Once seen, it can never be forgotten. =Once it is seen,
Seen from the hill, the park looks very beautiful = When it is seen from the hill,
Given more time, we could do it much better. = If we were given more time,
(一)过去分词作定语
1. 要求学生必须掌握过去分词做定语的位置 ,告诉他们单个过去分词及由过去分词构成的复合形容词作定语时,通常置于被修饰词之前,但修饰代词时,需置于被修饰词之后,而过去分词短语作定语也要后置,即要放在被修饰词之后,所以我们有后置定语之说。如:
the developed countries发达国家
well-trained policemen训练有素的警察
man-made satellites人造卫星
everybody invited所有被邀请的人
Don't use words,expressions,or phrases known only to people with specific knowledge.(上海'02)
2.要求学生掌握由表示情感或心理状态的动词转化而来的过去分词作定语时,通常不可以修饰无生命物,有些此类过去分词已经完全形容词化,常见的这类过去分词有:disappointed(失望的),moved(感动的),interested(感兴趣的),touched(被感动的),surprised(感到惊讶的),shocked(震惊的、震撼的),puzzled(迷惑不解的),frightened(受惊吓的)等等。如:
a frightened driver吓坏了的司机
a disappointed girl感到失望的女孩
此外,还让学生了解不及物动词的过去分词。由于不及物动词不可以直接跟宾语,所以不及物动词的过去分词作定语时只表示动作的完成,而没有被动语态的意义。如: newly-arrived goods新到的货  fallen leaves落叶 faded flowers凋谢的花
(二)过去分词作状语
首先,我让学生复习过去分词的基本特点和形式,重点强调过去分词作状语要特别注意其逻辑主语应该和句子的主语保持一致。通常过去分词在句中可以作时间状语、原因状语、方式状语、伴随状语和让步状语等,而且可以与对应的状语从句进行句型转换。如:
1)Given time,he'll make a first-class tennis player.(北京'03)
该句相当于If he is given time,he’ll make a first-class tennis player.
2) Followed by some managers,the boss inspected his production lines.
3) Mr.Smith,tired of the boring speech,started to read a novel.(北京春'03)
 然后,对平时常见的,也是高考的常考点 “连词+过去分词”结构进行了复习。
当状语从句的主语与主句的主语一致,而且状语从句的谓语动词是被动语态形式时,从句可以转换成“连词+过去分词”形式,同时省掉从句的主语和句中的助动词be,注该结构中的连词仍保持原来的意义。可以用于本结构引导状语从句的连词常见的有while /when /as /though /although /unless /if /once等。如:
1)The captain advised the soldier not to say anything unless he was asked
可以转换成:The captain advised the soldier not to say anything unless asked.
2)You should do as you were told to
可以转换成:You should do as told to.
实际上“连词+过去分词”已经成为近年的高考热点,如下列考例:
3)Generally speakingwhen taken according to the directions,the drug has no side effect.(上海'03)
4)The research is so designed that once begun nothing can be done to change it.(NMET'02)
 状语从句的"简化"现象常存在于以下五种状语从句中,具体我们分析如下:
1)由if, unless等引导的条件状语从句;
2)由although, though, even if / though等引导的让步状语从句;
3)由when, while, as, before, after, until / till等引导的时间状语从句;
4)由as, as if等引导的方式状语从句;
5)由as, than等引导的比较状语从句。
下面针对这五种情形作一归纳。
(1)当状语从句的主语是it,且谓语动词是be时,it和be要完全简化掉。例如:
If (it is) possible, he will help you out of the difficulty.如果可能的话,他会帮你摆脱困境。
You must attend the meeting unless (it is) inconvenient to you.除非情况对你来说不方便,否则你必须出席这次会议。
(2)当状语从句的主语和主句的主语一致时,从句可以将主语和be动词简化掉。常用于以下几种情形:
a.连词+形容词
As (he was) young, he learned how to ride a bike.他小时候就学会了骑自行车。
Whenever (she is) free, she often goes shopping.她有空就去逛商店。
Work hard when (you are) young, or you'll regret.少壮不努力,老大徒伤悲。
b.连词+名词
While (he was) a young boy, he was always ready to help others.他在孩提时代就乐于助人。
Although (he was) a farmer, now he is a famous director.尽管他曾是个农民,而现在是位著名的导演了。
c.连词+现在分词
As (she was) walking along the river bank, she was singing a pop song.她沿着河堤边走边唱着流行歌曲。
Although (he is) doing his best in maths these days, he has still got no good marks.尽管近来他一直在学数学,但他仍然没有取得好成绩。
d.连词+过去分词
He won't go there with us unless (he is) invited.除非受到邀请,否则他不会和我们一道去那里。
The concert was a great success than (it was) expected.这场音乐会出乎意料地取得了巨大成功。
e.连词+不定式
He stood up as if (he were) to say something.当时他站起来好像要说什么。He wouldn't solve the problem even if (he were) to take charge.即使他来负责,他也解决不了这个问题。
f. 连词+介词短语
She looked anxious as though (she was) in trouble.她看上去很焦急,好像遇到了麻烦。
He had mastered the English language before (he was) in the USA.他到美国之前就懂英语了。
注意:当从句主语和主句主语不一致时,从句部分要么用完全形式,要么用独立主格结构来表达。例如:
When the meeting was over, all the people went out of the meeting-room.当会议结束时,人们都走出了会议室。(=The meeting over)
过去分词作为非谓语动词的一种,是整个高中阶段的重难点,平时我们在为学生讲解时,一定要找准切入点,依据学生具体情况,思路清晰地辅助上有针对性的练习,相信能突破该知识点。

·上篇文章:谈高考物理解题规范——结合2009高考评卷体会
·下篇文章:The Subjunctive Mood(虚拟语气)
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